Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of horticultural sciences, Faculty of agricultural sciences, Guilan University, Rasht, Iran

2 Department of horticultural sciences, Faculty of Plant Production, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran

3 Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Iran


Secondary metabolites (SMs) are valuable compounds with different applications in various industries. Nowadays application of suitable precursor and elicitor is an effective method for increasing Secondary Metabolites under in vitro conditions. The effect of phenylalanine as precursor (0, 5, 10 and 20 mg/l) and salicylic acid (SA) as elicitor (0 and 200 μmol) on the phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and antioxidant activity were investigated in callus culture of artichoke. The changes in total phenols and flavonoids under the effect of treatments were also studied. Based on the obtained results, phenylalanine had a significant effect on the measured parameters. Under the combination effect of salicylic acid (SA) and phenylalanine, all measured parameters except antioxidant activity were significantly influenced. For instance, by using the combination of 200 μmol of SA and 20 mg/l phenylalanine, the highest PAL activity (4.398 mmol/ g FW), phenol content (0.638 mg/g FW), flavonoid content (0.577 mg/g FW) and antioxidant activity (89.405%) were recorded. According to the results of this experiment, for increasing the medicinal compounds of artichoke, it is recommended to use the stimulant compounds such as phenylalanine and salicylic acid.

Graphical Abstract

Enhancement of PAL enzyme activity and production of phenylpropanoids and antioxidant contents of Cynara scolymus L. callus under the influence of precursor and elicitor


Main Subjects