Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Instructor of Seed and Plant Improvement Department, Research and Education Center of Agricultural and Natural Resources of Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization(AREEO), Yasouj, Iran

2 Researcher, Dryland Agricultural Research Institute, Kohgiloyeh and Boyerahmad Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Gachsaran, Iran.

3 Research Division of Forest, rangeland and watershed, Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad Agriculture and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Yasouj, Iran

Abstract

Background: Water stress is one of the most important abiotic stresses, which limiting plant growth and yield in dryland conditions. Balangu (Lallemantia spp), is a plant of Lamiaceae family and has several nutritional and medicinal uses. This experiment was carried out in the farm of Yasouj Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center in 2017-2017. This study was conducted in a randomized complete block design with five medicinal plant landraces of Balangu (Kerman, Isfahan, Kurdistan, Mashhad and Malekan) in four replications in dryland conditions. Due to water limitation in arid and semi-arid regions and the importance of the Balangu medicinal plant, the objectives of this experiment was to improvement the yield, percentage and yield of mucilage and seed oil of Balangu landraces in dryland conditions. Methods: The measured traits in this experiment included grain yield, mucilage and oil. The percentage of mucilage was measured by, heat one gram of dry grain with 10 ml of 0.1 N hydrochloric acid until discoloration occurs in the grain shell, then add 60 ml of 96% ethyl alcohol to the resulting mucilage solution and refrigerate for five hours. The resulting precipitate was placed in an oven for 12 hours after filtration at 50 C °. After the amount of mucilage was recorded as a percentage. The seed oil percentage was measured by Soxhlet method. First, the desired seeds were milled. Then passed through a 20 mesh sieve and about 5 to 10 grams of powdered seeds were wrapped in filter paper. Then, a sample of filter paper with seed powder was placed in the cartridge of Soxhlet extractor machine.

Results: The results showed that in dryland conditions, grain yield, mucilage and oil of Balangu landraces were significant at 5% probability level. The highest grain yield was obtained from Kurdistan and Mashhad landraces with average yields of 529 and 515 kg ha-1, respectively. They had higher mucilage and seed oil yield than other landraces tested.

Conclusion: Overall, the results of this study concluded that the landraces of Kurdistan and Mashhad are recommended for cultivation in dryland conditions due to high yield, mucilage and grain oil.

Graphical Abstract

Improving yield, mucilage and seed oil of the Balangu (Lallemantia spp) landraces in dryland conditions

Keywords

Main Subjects

  1. Megaloudi F. (2006). Plants and diet in Greece from Neolithic to Classic periods: the archaeobotanical remains. BAR Publishing. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]‎
  2. Van Soest L J M, Doorgeest M, Ensink E. (1987). Introdutie-demonstratie tun potentiële nieuwe gewassen. (in-formatie. knelpunten en potentie). Center for genetic resources. Wageningen, 29-31.
  3. Overeem A, Buisman G J H, Derksen J T P, Cuperus F P, Molhoek L, Grisnich W, Goemans C. (1999). Seed oils rich in linolenic acid as renewable feedstock for environment-friendly crosslinkers in powder coatings. Industrial crops and products, 10(3): 157-165. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]‎
  4. Mozaffarian V. (1996). A dictionary of Iranian plant names. Tehran: Farhang Moaser, 396. [Publisher]‎, [Link 2]
  5. Amanzadeh Y, Khosravi Dehaghi N, Gohari A R, Monsef-Esfahani H R, Sadat Ebrahimi S E. (2011). Antioxidant activity of essential oil of Lallemantia iberica in flowering stage and post-flowering stage. Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 6(3): 114-117. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]‎
  6. Naghibi F, Mosadegh M, Mohammadi M S, Ghorbani A B. (2005). Labiatae family in folk medicine in Iran: from ethnobotany to pharmacology. 63-79. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]‎, [PDF]
  7. Malik K, Arora G, Singh I, Arora S. (2011). Lallemantia reylenne seeds as superdisintegrant: Formulation and evaluation of nimesulide orodispersible tablets. International journal of pharmaceutical investigation, 1(3): 192-198. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]‎
  8. Jones G, Valamoti S M. (2005). Lallemantia, an imported or introduced oil plant in Bronze Age northern Greece. Vegetation history and archaeobotany, 14(4): 571-577. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]‎
  9. Anjum S A, Xie X Y, Wang L C, Saleem M F, Man C, Lei W. (2011). Morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of plants to drought stress. African journal of agricultural research, 6(9): 2026-2032. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]‎
  10. Askari E, Ehsanzadeh P. (2015). Osmoregulation-mediated differential responses of field-grown fennel genotypes to drought. Industrial Crops and Products, 76: 494-508. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]‎
  11. Selmar D, Kleinwächter M. (2013). Influencing the product quality by deliberately applying drought stress during the cultivation of medicinal plants. Industrial Crops and Products, 1(42): 558-566. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]‎
  12. Shahbazi S, Alizadeh K, Fathirezaie V. (2012). Study on planting possibility of Dragon's head (Lallemantia iberica F. & CM) landraces in cold rainfed conditions. Iranian Dryland Agronomy Journal, 1(2): 82-95. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]‎
  13. Abdolahi M, Malki frahani S, Fotokian M, Hassanzadeh A. (2014). Study on yield, yield components and water use efficiency and urban Balangu Shirazi under drought stress conditions for irrigation management. Journal of Water Irrigation Managment. 2(3): 103-120. [DOR], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]‎
  14. Farzi M, Koushnod A, Arshad M. (2016). ivestigation of Balangu (Lallenamntia) landraces in coundition of dryland and irrigation supplemen. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology, 10(2): 401-412.
  15. Nogh A R, Koocheki A, Ghorbani R, Moghaddam P R, Bakhshaei S. (2017). Effect of organic fertilizers and plant density on qualitative characteristics of Balangu (Lallenamntia royleana Benth). Agroecology, 9(2).[Google Scholar], [Publisher]‎
  16. Hedge I C. (1970). Observations on the mucilage of Salvia fruits. Edinb Roy Bot Gard Notes. [Google Scholar]‎
  17. Grubert M. (1974). Studies on the distribution of myxospermy among seeds and fruits of Angiospermae and its ecological importance. Acta Biológica Venezuelica, 8: 315-352. [Google Scholar], [Publisher]‎
  18. Sharma P K, Koul A K. (1986). Mucilage in seeds of Plantago ovata and its wild allies. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 17(3): 289-295. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]‎
  19. Soxhlet F. (2003). Die gewichtsanalytische Bestimmung des Milchfettes. Polytechnisches Journal, 1879: 232-261. [Google Scholar]
  20. Ahmadi K, Omidi H. (2019). Evaluation of Morphological Characteristics, Yield Components and Catalase Enzymes Activity of Lallemantia royleana Benth. under Drought Stress. Agroecology, 11(2): 757-774. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]‎
  21. Douglas J A, Follett J M, Heaney A J. 2002. The effect of plant density on of valerian root. Acta Horticulture, 426: 264-272. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]‎
  22. Richards R A, Rebetzke G J, Condon A G, Van Herwaarden A. (2002). Breeding opportunities for increasing the efficiency of water use and crop yield in temperate cereals. Crop science, 42(1): 111-121. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]‎